Wednesday, February 24, 2010

Shorter Syntax for Creating Stubs with Mockito

As part of my efforts to create more concise Unit Tests in Java, Steve McLarnon and I recently added the ability to create a stub and stub one method with only one line.

The implementation relies entirely on Mockito, so my example assumes you were already using Mockito to create the stub.

The Mockito documentation has the following example for stubbing:
LinkedList mockedList = mock(LinkedList.class);
Using the code Steve and I put together you can simplify this to the following single line.
LinkedList mockedList = create(aStub(LinkedList.class).returning("first").from().get(0));

The implementation is simple, but does rely on static state. There are ways to improve the implementation; however, this works for us. If you have more specific needs, feel free to change it to suit you.

The implementation follows:
public class MockitoExtensions {
public static T create(Object methodCall) {
return (T) StubBuilder.current.mockInstance;

public static StubBuilder aStub(Class klass) {
return new StubBuilder(mock(klass));

public static class StubBuilder {
public static StubBuilder current;
public final T mockInstance;
private Object returnValue;

public StubBuilder(T mockInstance) {
current = this;
this.mockInstance = mockInstance;

public T from() {
return mockInstance;

public StubBuilder returning(Object returnValue) {
this.returnValue = returnValue;
return this;

The Maintainability of Unit Tests

At speakerconf 2010 discussion repeatedly arose around the idea that unit tests hinder your ability to refactor and add new features. It's true that tests are invaluable when refactoring the internals of a class as long as the interface doesn't change. However, when the interface does change, updating the associated tests is often the vast majority of the effort. Additionally, if a refactoring changes the interaction between two or more classes, the vast majority of the time is spent fixing tests, for several classes.

In my experience, making the interface or interaction change often takes 15-20% of the time, while changing the associated tests take the other 80-85%. When the effort is split that drastically, people begin to ask questions.

Should I write Unit Tests? The answer at speakerconf was: Probably, but I'm interested in hearing other options.

Ayende proposed that scenario based testing was a better solution. His examples drove home the point that he was able to make large architectural refactorings without changing any tests. Unfortunately, his tests suffered from the same problems that Integration Test advocates have been dealing with for years: Long Running Tests (20 mins to run a suite!) and Poor Defect Localization (where did things go wrong?). However, despite these limitations, he's reporting success with this strategy.

In my opinion, Martin Fowler actually answered this question correctly in the original Refactoring book.
The key is to test the areas that you are most worried about going wrong. That way you get the most benefit for your testing effort.
It's a bit of a shame that sentence lives in Refactoring and not in every book written for developers beginning to test their applications. After years of trying to test everything, I stumbled upon that sentence while creating Refactoring: Ruby Edition. That one sentence changed my entire attitude on Unit Testing.

I still write Unit Tests, but I only focus on testing the parts that provide the most business value.

An example
you find yourself working on an insurance application for a company that stores it's policies by customer SSN. Your application is likely to have several validations for customer information.

The validation that ensures a SSN is 9 numeric digits is obviously very important.

The validation that the customer name is alpha-only is probably closer to the category of "nice to have". If the alpha-only name validation is broken or removed, the application will continue to function almost entirely normally. And, the most likely problem is a typo - probably not the end of the world.

It's usually easy enough to add validations, but you don't need to test every single validation. The value of each validation should be used to determine if a test is warranted.
How do I improve the maintainability of my tests? Make them more concise.

Once you've determined you should write a test, take the time to create a concise test that can be maintained. The longer the test, the more likely it is to be ignored or misunderstood by future readers.

There are several methods for creating more concise tests. My recent work is largely in Java, so my examples are Java related. I've previously written about my preferred method for creating objects in Java Unit Tests. You can also use frameworks that focus on simplicity, such as Mockito. But, the most important aspect of creating concise tests is taking a hard look at object modeling. Removing constructor and method arguments is often the easiest way to reduce the amount of noise within a test.

If you're not using Java, the advice is the same: Remove noise from your tests by improving object modeling and using frameworks that promote descriptive, concise syntax. Removing noise from tests always increases maintainability.

That's it? Yes. I find when I only test the important aspects of an application and I focus on removing noise from the tests that I do write, the maintainability issue is largely addressed. As a result the pendulum swings back towards a more even effort split between features & refactoring vs updating tests.